3. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|6 Months Ended|
Oct. 31, 2015
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
This Amendment No. 1 on Form 10-Q/A ("Amended Filing or Report") to the Companys Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended October 31, 2015 should be read in conjunction with the Companys Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the year ended April 30, 2015. Unless the context otherwise requires, references in these notes are to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries.
Principles of Consolidation and Basis of Presentation
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (Commission). Intercompany balances and transactions are eliminated. In the opinion of the Companys management, the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, which are normal and recurring in nature, necessary for fair financial statement presentation. The Companys 14.5% investment in SG Austria is presented on the cost method of accounting.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP requires the use of estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities known to exist as of the date the financial statements are published and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Uncertainties with respect to such estimates and assumptions are inherent in the preparation of the Companys condensed consolidated financial statements; accordingly, it is possible that the actual results could differ from these estimates and assumptions, which could have a material effect on the reported amounts of the Companys condensed consolidated financial position and results of operations.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
The Company records the excess of purchase price over the fair value of the identifiable net assets acquired as goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangibles. The Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") standard on goodwill and other intangible assets prescribes a two-step process for impairment testing of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangibles, which is performed annually, as well as when an event triggering impairment may have occurred. The first step tests for impairment, while the second step, if necessary, measures the impairment. The Company has elected to perform its annual analysis at the end of its fiscal year.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company evaluates long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. If the estimated future cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) from the use of an asset are less than carrying value, a write-down would be recorded to reduce the related asset to its estimated fair value. No impairment was identified or recorded during the period ended October 31, 2015.
Earnings per Share
Basic earnings (loss) per share are computed by dividing earnings available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of outstanding common shares during the period. Diluted earnings per share are computed by dividing net income by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period increased to include the number of additional shares of common stock that would have been outstanding if the potentially dilutive securities had been issued. For the periods ended October 31, 2015 and 2014, the Company incurred net losses; therefore, the effect of any common stock equivalent would be anti-dilutive during these periods.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
For certain of the Companys non-derivative financial instruments, including cash, accounts payable and accrued expenses, the carrying amount approximates fair value due to the short-term maturities of these instruments.
Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, requires disclosure of the fair value of financial instruments held by the Company. ASC Topic 825, Financial Instruments, defines fair value and establishes a three-level valuation hierarchy for disclosures of fair value measurement that enhances disclosure requirements for fair value measures. The carrying amounts reported in the condensed consolidated balance sheets for receivables and current liabilities each qualify as financial instruments and are a reasonable estimate of their fair values. This is because of the short period of time between the origination of such instruments, their expected realization and their current market rate of interest. The three levels of valuation hierarchy are defined as follows:
The carrying value of cash, accounts payable and accrued expenses, as reflected in the condensed consolidated balance sheets, approximate fair value because of the short-term maturity of these instruments.
Sales of products and related costs of products sold are recognized when: (i) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (ii) delivery has occurred; (iii) the price is fixed or determinable; and (iv) collectability is reasonably assured. These terms are typically met upon the prepayment or invoicing and shipment of products.
Deferred taxes are calculated using the liability method whereby deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences and operating loss and tax credit carry forwards and deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Temporary differences are the differences between the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax bases. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on the date of enactment.
A valuation allowance is provided for deferred income tax assets when, in managements judgment, based upon currently available information and other factors, it is more likely than not that all or a portion of such deferred income tax assets will not be realized. The determination of the need for a valuation allowance is based on an on-going evaluation of current information including, among other things, historical operating results, estimates of future earnings in different taxing jurisdictions and the expected timing of the reversals of temporary differences. The Company believes the determination to record a valuation allowance to reduce a deferred income tax asset is a significant accounting estimate because it is based, among other things, on an estimate of future taxable income in the United States and certain other jurisdictions. This is because it is susceptible to change, may or may not occur and the impact of adjusting a valuation allowance may be material. In determining when to release the valuation allowance established against the Companys net deferred income tax assets, the Company considers all available evidence, both positive and negative. Consistent with the Companys policy, and because of the Companys history of operating losses, the Company does not currently recognize the benefit of all of its deferred tax assets, including tax loss carry forwards, that may be used to offset future taxable income. The Company continually assesses its ability to generate sufficient taxable income during future periods in which deferred tax assets may be realized. If and when the Company believes it is more likely than not that it will recover its deferred tax assets, the Company will reverse the valuation allowance as an income tax benefit in the Companys statements of operations.
The Company accounts for its uncertain tax positions in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The purpose of this method is to clarify accounting for uncertain tax positions recognized. The U.S. GAAP method of accounting for uncertain tax positions utilizes a two-step approach to evaluate tax positions. Step one, recognition, requires evaluation of the tax position to determine if based solely on technical merits it is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination. Step two, measurement, is addressed only if a position is more likely than not to be sustained. In step two, the tax benefit is measured as the largest amount of benefit, determined on a cumulative probability basis, which is more likely than not to be realized upon ultimate settlement with tax authorities. If a position does not meet the more likely than not threshold for recognition in step one, no benefit is recorded until the first subsequent period in which the more likely than not standard is met, the issue is resolved with the taxing authority or the statute of limitations expires. Positions previously recognized are reversed when the Company subsequently determines the position no longer is more likely than not to be sustained. Evaluation of tax positions, their technical merits and measurements using cumulative probability are highly subjective management estimates. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses consist of costs incurred for direct and overhead-related research expenses and are expensed as incurred. Costs to acquire technologies, including licenses, that are utilized in research and development and that have no alternative future use are expensed when incurred. Technology developed for use in the Companys product candidates is expensed as incurred until technological feasibility has been established.
The Companys stock-based employee compensation awards are described in Note 6. The Company has adopted the provisions of ASC 718, which requires the fair value measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all stock-based awards made to directors, executives and employees.
Concentration of Credit Risk
The Company has no significant off-balance-sheet concentrations of credit risk such as foreign exchange contracts, options contracts or other foreign hedging arrangements. The Company maintains most of its cash balance at a financial institution located in California. Accounts at this institution are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation up to $250,000. Uninsured balances aggregated approximately $2,062,000 at October 31, 2015. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts, and management believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk on cash.
Foreign Currency Translation
The Company translates the financial statements of its foreign subsidiary from the local (functional) currencies to U.S. dollars in accordance with FASB ASC 830, Foreign Currency Matters. All assets and liabilities of the Companys foreign subsidiaries are translated at year-end exchange rates, while revenue and expenses are translated at average exchange rates prevailing during the year. Adjustments for foreign currency translation fluctuations are excluded from net income and are included in other comprehensive loss. Gains and losses on short-term intercompany foreign currency transactions are recognized as incurred.
Certain prior year balances have been reclassified to conform to the presentation in this Report, with no changes in net loss for prior periods presented.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
We have reviewed all of the recent accounting pronouncements and have determined that they have not or will not have a material impact on the Companys consolidated financial statements, or simply do not apply to the Companys operations.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef