2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Apr. 30, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Principles of Consolidation and Basis of Presentation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. The Company operates independently and through four wholly owned subsidiaries: (i) Bio Blue Bird; (ii) PharmaCyte Biotech Europe Limited; (iii) PharmaCyte Biotech Australia Pty. Ltd.; and (iv) Viridis Biotech, Inc. and are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and the rules and regulations of the Commission. Upon consolidation, intercompany balances and transactions are eliminated. The Company’s 14.5% investment in SG Austria is presented on the cost method of accounting.
Use of Estimates in the Preparation of Financial Statements
The preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP requires the use of estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities known to exist as of the date the financial statements are published and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Uncertainties with respect to such estimates and assumptions are inherent in the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements; accordingly, it is possible that the actual results could differ from these estimates and assumptions, which could have a material effect on the reported amounts of the Company’s consolidated financial position and results of operations. The severity, magnitude and duration, as well as the economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, are uncertain, rapidly changing and difficult to predict. Therefore, the Company’s accounting estimates and assumptions may change over time in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and may change materially in future periods.
The Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") standard on goodwill and other intangible assets prescribes a two-step process for impairment testing of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangibles, which is performed annually, as well as when an event triggering impairment may have occurred. The first step tests for impairment, while the second step, if necessary, measures the impairment. The Company has elected to perform its annual analysis at the end of its reporting year.
The Company’s intangible assets are licensing agreements related to the Cell-in-a-Box® technology for $1,549,427 and diabetes license for $2,000,000 for an aggregate total of $3,549,427.
These intangible assets have an indefinite life; therefore, they are not amortizable.
The Company concluded that there was no impairment of the carrying value of the intangible assets for the years ended April 30, 2021 and 2020.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company evaluates long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be fully recoverable. If the estimated future cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) from the use of an asset are less than carrying value, a write-down would be recorded to reduce the related asset to its estimated fair value. No impairment was identified or recorded during the years ended April 30, 2021 and 2020.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
For certain of the Company’s non-derivative financial instruments, including cash, accounts payable and accrued expenses, the carrying amount approximates fair value due to the short-term maturities of these instruments.
Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures,” requires disclosure of the fair value of financial instruments held by the Company. ASC Topic 825, “Financial Instruments,” defines fair value, and establishes a three-level valuation hierarchy for disclosures of fair value measurement that enhances disclosure requirements for fair value measures. The carrying amounts reported in the consolidated balance sheets for current liabilities qualify as financial instruments and are a reasonable estimate of their fair values because of the short period between the origination of such instruments and their expected realization and their current market rate of interest. The three levels of valuation hierarchy are defined as follows:
Deferred taxes are calculated using the liability method whereby deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences and operating loss and tax credit carry forwards, and deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Temporary differences are the differences between the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax bases. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on the date of enactment.
A valuation allowance is provided for deferred income tax assets when, in management’s judgment, based upon currently available information and other factors, it is more likely than not that all or a portion of such deferred income tax assets will not be realized. The determination of the need for a valuation allowance is based on an on-going evaluation of current information including, among other things, historical operating results, estimates of future earnings in different taxing jurisdictions and the expected timing of the reversals of temporary differences. The Company believes the determination to record a valuation allowance to reduce a deferred income tax asset is a significant accounting estimate because it is based on, among other things, an estimate of future taxable income in the U.S. and certain other jurisdictions, which is susceptible to change and may or may not occur, and because the impact of adjusting a valuation allowance may be material. In determining when to release the valuation allowance established against the Company’s net deferred income tax assets, the Company considers all available evidence, both positive and negative. Consistent with the Company’s policy, and because of the Company’s history of operating losses, the Company does not currently recognize the benefit of all its deferred tax assets, including tax loss carry forwards, which may be used to offset future taxable income. The Company continually assesses its ability to generate sufficient taxable income during future periods in which deferred tax assets may be realized. When the Company believes it is more likely than not that it will recover its deferred tax assets, the Company will reverse the valuation allowance as an income tax benefit in the statements of operations.
The U.S. GAAP method of accounting for uncertain tax positions utilizes a two-step approach to evaluate tax positions. Step one, recognition, requires evaluation of the tax position to determine if based solely on technical merits it is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination. Step two, measurement, is addressed only if a position is more likely than not to be sustained. In step two, the tax benefit is measured as the largest amount of benefit, determined on a cumulative probability basis, which is more likely than not to be realized upon ultimate settlement with tax authorities. If a position does not meet the more likely than not threshold for recognition in step one, no benefit is recorded until the first subsequent period in which the more likely than not standard is met, the issue is resolved with the taxing authorities or the statute of limitations expires. Positions previously recognized are derecognized when the Company subsequently determines the position no longer is more likely than not to be sustained. Evaluation of tax positions, their technical merits and measurements using cumulative probability are highly subjective management estimates. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates.
On March 27, 2020, Congress enacted the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security ("CARES") Act to provide certain relief as a result of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 outbreak. The Company maintains a full valuation allowance on its U.S. net deferred tax assets. Deferred tax asset remeasurement (tax expense) was offset by a net decrease in valuation allowance, that resulted in no impact on the Company's income tax expense. Therefore, the Company does not expect the provisions in the CARES Act will impact the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
On March 11, 2021, Congress enacted the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, the Company does not expect the provisions of this act will impact the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Research and Development
R&D expenses consist of costs incurred for direct and overhead-related research expenses and are expensed as incurred. Costs to acquire technologies, including licenses, that are utilized in research and development and that have no alternative future use are expensed when incurred. Technology developed for use in the Company’s product candidates is expensed as incurred until technological feasibility has been established.
R&D costs for the years ended April 30, 2021 and 2020 were $916,249 and $301,221, respectively.
The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense for only those awards ultimately expected to vest on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the award. The Company estimates the fair value of stock options using a Black-Scholes-Merton valuation model. This model requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including the option's expected term and stock price volatility. In addition, judgment is also required in estimating the number of stock-based awards that are expected to be forfeited. Forfeitures are estimated based on historical experience at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of share-based payment awards represent management's best estimates, but these estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management's judgment. Thus, if factors change and the Company uses different assumptions, the stock-based compensation expense could be materially different in the future.
Concentration of Credit Risk
The Company has no significant off-balance-sheet concentrations of credit risk such as foreign exchange contracts, options contracts or other foreign hedging arrangements. The Company maintains most of its cash balance at a financial institution located in California. Accounts at this institution are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation up to $250,000. Uninsured balances aggregated approximately $1,921,000 and $618,000 at April 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts. Management believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk on cash.
Foreign Currency Translation
The Company translates the financial statements of its foreign subsidiaries from the local (functional) currencies to U.S. dollars in accordance with FASB ASC 830, Foreign Currency Matters. All assets and liabilities of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries are translated at year-end exchange rates, while revenue and expenses are translated at average exchange rates prevailing during the year. Adjustments for foreign currency translation fluctuations are excluded from net loss and are included in other comprehensive income (loss). Gains and losses on short-term intercompany foreign currency transactions are recognized as incurred.
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern; however, the following conditions raise substantial doubt about the Company's ability to do so. As of April 30, 2021, the Company has an accumulated deficit of $107,409,495 and incurred a net loss for year ended April 30, 2021 of $3,551,236. The Company requires substantial additional capital to finance its planned business operations and expects to incur operating losses in future periods due to the expenses related to the Company’s core businesses. The Company has not realized any revenue since it commenced doing business in the biotechnology sector, and there can be no assurance that it will be successful in generating revenues in the future in this sector. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments to reflect the possible future effects on the recoverability and classification of assets or the amounts and classifications of liabilities that may result should the Company be unable to continue as a going concern.
On April 5, 2021, and with an effective date of April 15, 2021, the Company filed the third Registration Statement on Form S-3 (“Third S-3”). The Third S-3 allows offerings of up to $100 million in transactions that are deemed to be public offerings.
On April 26, 2021, the Company entered into an engagement letter with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC, as underwriter, with respect to securities to be offered in a public offering. On August 9, 2021, the Company entered into an underwriting agreement with H.C. Wainwright & Co, LLC to offer and sell shares of common stock, pre-funded warrants and warrants in a public offering. The gross proceeds of the offering are expected to be $15 million, before deduction of underwriting discounts, commissions and estimated offering expenses. See Note 13 - Subsequent Events.
Management determined that these plans alleviate substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. The Company believes the cash on hand at April 30, 2021, the potential sales of registered and unregistered shares of its common stock and the proceeds of the offering led by H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC will provide sufficient capital to meet the Company’s capital requirements and to fund the Company’s operations through August 31, 2022.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments ("ASU 2016-13"), was issued in June 2016. Under ASU 2016-13, existing guidance on reporting credit losses for trade and other receivables and available for sale debt securities will be replaced with a new forward-looking "expected loss" model that generally will result in the earlier recognition of allowances for losses. The Company’s adoption of ASU 2016-13 during the quarter ended July 31, 2020 did not result in an impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements. As part of the Company’s continuing assessment of the adequacy of ASU 2016-13, there are no factors to be considered at this time since the Company does not have an allowance for credit losses.
ASU No. 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes ("ASU 2019-12"), was issued in December 2019. Under ASU 2019-12, the accounting for income taxes is simplified by eliminating certain exceptions and implementing additional requirements which result in a more consistent application of ASC 740. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2019-12 in 2021 but it does not expect it to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting (“ASU 2020-04”) and also issued subsequent amendments to the initial guidance (collectively, “Topic 848”). Topic 848 is effective for all entities as of March 12, 2020 through December 31, 2022 and provides optional guidance for contract modifications and certain hedging relationships associated with the transition from reference rates that are expected to be discontinued. The Company will adopt Topic 848 when relevant contracts are modified upon transition to alternative reference rates. The Company does not expect the adoption of Topic 848 to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef